Posts Tagged ‘Concussion’
Background: Concussion remains a symptom-based diagnosis clinically, yet preclinical studies investigating traumatic brain injury, of which concussion is believed to represent a ‘mild’ form, emphasize histological endpoints with functional assessments often minimized or ignored all together. Recently, clinical studies have identified the importance of cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms, in addition to somatic complaints, following concussion. How these findings may translate to preclinical studies is unclear at present.
Objective: To address the contrasting endpoints utilized clinically compared to those in preclinical studies and the potential role of functional assessments in a commonly used model of diffuse axonal injury (DAI).
Methods: Animals were subjected to DAI using the impact-acceleration model. Functional and behavioral assessments were conducted over 1 week following DAI prior to completion of histological assessment at 1-week post-DAI.
Background: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have called for studies detailing the prevalence and burden of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in the outpatient clinical setting.
Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of outpatient visits for minor head injury and compare the number of outpatient visits for minor head injury with the number of emergency department (ED) visits.
Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of outpatient visits for minor head injuries from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) and the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS). We examined outpatient visits for minor head injury between 2005 and 2009 and compared them with visits in the ED for the same diagnoses using simple survey-weighted descriptive statistics.
Traditionally, the medical management of concussion has involved close observation and physical and cognitive rest. Most postconcussive symptoms resolve spontaneously and require only conservative treatment. However, some patients have prolonged recoveries and may benefit from treatment with medications. Some naturally occurring compounds demonstrate multimechanistic neuroprotective properties and may be potential treatment considerations. For the most part, however, current treatments are symptom based for those with persistent postconcussive symptoms. The evidence supporting the various pharmacologic treatments in concussion is equivocal. The choice of which medication to use for a patient depends on the symptom characteristics, and each decision should be made on an individual-case basis. There is a need for well-designed trials investigating the efficacy of various medical therapies.
Background: We define chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) as a progressive neurodegenerative syndrome caused by single, episodic, or repetitive blunt force impacts to the head and transfer of acceleration-deceleration forces to the brain.
Objective: We present emerging histomorphologic phenotypes of CTE that we identified in our cohort of CTE cases with apolipoprotein E genotyping and causes and manners of death.
Methods: Autopsy brain tissue of 14 professional athletes and 3 high school football players was examined after unexpected deaths. Histochemical and immunohistochemical tissue staining was performed with apolipoprotein E genotyping.