Posts Tagged ‘stem cells’
The management of spinal column tumors continues to be a challenge for clinicians. The mechanisms of tumor recurrence after surgical intervention as well as resistance to radiation and chemotherapy continue to be elucidated. Furthermore, the pathophysiology of metastatic spread remains an area of active investigation. There is a growing body of evidence pointing to the existence of a subset of tumor cells with high tumorigenic potential in many spine cancers that exhibit characteristics similar to those of stem cells. The ability to self-renew and differentiate into multiple lineages is the hallmark of stem cells, and tumor cells that exhibit these characteristics have been described as cancer stem cells (CSCs). The mechanisms that allow nonmalignant stem cells to promote normal developmental programming by way of enhanced proliferation, promotion of angiogenesis, and increased motility may be used by CSCs to fuel carcinogenesis. The purpose of this review is to discuss what is known about the role of CSCs in tumors of the osseous spine. Read the rest of this entry »
Ahead of Print: A Comparison of Mesenchymal Precursor Cells with Amnion Epithelial Cells for Enhancing Cervical Interbody Fusion in an Ovine Model
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BACKGROUND: Rapid, reliable fusion is the goal in anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). Iliac crest autograft has a high rate of donor site morbidity. Alternatives, such as bone graft substitutes, lack osteo-inductivity, and recombinant bone morphogenetic proteins risk life-threatening complications. Both allogeneic mesenchymal precursor cells (MPCs) and amnion derived epithelial cells (AECs) have osteogenic potential.
OBJECTIVE: To compare, for the first time, the capacity of MPCs and AECs to promote osteogenesis in an ovine model.
METHODS: Five groups of 2 year old ewes were subjected to C3/4 ACDF using a Fidji(TM) interbody cage packed with: A: Iliac crest autograft (AG) alone (n=6); B: Hydroxyapatite-tricalcium phosphate Mastergraft(TM) Granules (HA/TCP) alone (n=6); C: HA/TCP containing 5 million MPCs (n=6); D: HA/TCP containing 5 million AECs (n=5); E: age-matched non-operative controls (n=6). At 3 months, animals were sacrificed and quantitative multi-slice CT, functional radiography, biomechanics, histology, and histomorphometry were performed.
The Emory Wheel reports that an Emory research team has completed the initial phase of a clinical trial series to implant stem cells into the spinal cords of adults suffering from Lou Gehrig’s disease - the first attempt to do so in the U.S. - on Wednesday.
“In ALS, we believe that the main problem people have is the loss of motor cells, so we started designing a clinical trial, and discussions with the FDA led to a series of experiments to test and prove how we could conduct surgery on humans,” Assistant Professor of Neurosurgery Nicholas Boulis said in a previous interview with the Wheel.
ScienceDaily (2010-01-15) Cancer-initiating cells that launch glioblastoma multiforme, the most lethal type of brain tumor, also suppress an immune system attack on the disease, scientists have found.