Carotid artery stenting has become a viable alternative to carotid endarterectomy in the management of carotid stenosis. Over the past 20 years, many trials have attempted to compare both treatment modalities and establish the indications for each one, depending on clinical and anatomic features presented by patients. Concurrently, carotid stenting techniques and devices have evolved and made endovascular management of carotid stenosis safe and effective. Among the most important innovations are devices for distal and proximal embolic protection and new stent designs. This paper reviews these advances in the endovascular management of carotid artery stenosis within the context of the historical background.
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