Background: The effectiveness of Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKR) for cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVM) is predicated on inclusion of the entire nidus while excluding normal tissue. As such, GKR may be limited by the resolution and accuracy of the imaging modality used in targeting.
Objective: We present the first case series to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing ultra-high-resolution C-arm cone beam computed tomography angiography (CBCT-A) in AVM targeting.
Methods: From June 2009 to June 2013, CBCT-A was utilized for targeting of all patients with AVMs treated with GKR at our institution. Patients underwent Leksell stereotactic head frame placement followed by catheter-based biplane 2-D digital subtraction angiography (DSA), 3-D rotational angiography (3DRA), as well as CBCT-A. The CBCT-A dataset was used for stereotactic planning for GKR. Patients were followed up at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months, and then annually thereafter.
Results: CBCT-A-based targeting was used in twenty-two consecutive patients. CBCT-A provided detailed spatial resolution and sensitivity of nidal angioarchitecture enabling treatment. The average radiation dose to the margin of the AVM nidus corresponding to the 50% percent isodose line was 15.6 Gy. No patient had treatment-associated hemorrhage. At early follow-up (mean=16 months), 84% of patients had a decreasing or obliterated AVM nidus.
Conclusion: CBCT-A-guided radiosurgery is feasible and useful because it provides sufficient detailed resolution and sensitivity for imaging brain AVMs.
From: Utilization of Cone-Beam Computed Tomographic Angiography in Planning for Gamma Knife Radiosurgery of Arteriovenous Malformations: A Case Series and Early Report by Safain et al.