Background: Although considered a standard neurosurgical procedure, endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) is associated with a relatively high complication rate that is predominantly related to malpositioning of the trajectory.
Objective: To develop an advanced navigation protocol for ETV, assess its possible benefits over commonly used ETV trajectories, and apply this protocol during surgery.
Methods: After development of our advanced protocol, the imaging data of 59 patients who underwent ETV without navigation-guidance was transferred to our navigation software. An individualized endoscope trajectory was created according to our protocol in all cases. This trajectory was compared with two standard trajectories especially with regard to the distance to relevant neuronal structures: a trajectory manually measured on preoperative radiological images, as performed in all 59 cases, and a trajectory resulting from a commonly used fixed coronal burr hole. Subsequently, we applied the protocol in 15 ETVs to assess the feasibility and procedural complications.
Results: Our individualized trajectory resulted in a significantly greater distance to the margins of the foramen of Monro, and the burr hole was located more posteriorly from the coronal suture as compared to the standard trajectories. The advanced ETV technique was feasible in all 15 procedures and no major complications occurred in any procedure. In one patient, a fornix contusion without clinical correlation was observed.
Conclusion: Our data indicate that the proposed navigation protocol for ETV optimizes the distance of the endoscope to important neuronal structures. Continuous endoscope and puncture-device guidance may further add to the safety of this procedure.
From: A Novel Protocol of Continuous Navigation Guidance for Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy by Martínez-Moreno et al.