Ahead of Print: Ischemic Hypoxia in Moyamoya Disease

Screen Shot 2015-01-16 at 7.18.20 AMBACKGROUND: In moyamoya disease (MMD), cerebral revascularization is recommended in patients with recurrent or progressive ischemic events and associated reduced cerebral perfusion reserve. Low-flow bypass with or without indirect revascularization is generally the standard surgical treatment. Intraoperative monitoring of cerebral partial pressure of oxygen (PtiO2) with polarographic Clark-type probes in cerebral artery bypass surgery for MMD-induced chronic cerebral ischemia has not yet been described.

OBJECTIVE: To describe basal brain tissue oxygenation in MMD patients before revascularization as well as the immediate changes produced by the surgical procedure using intraoperative PtiO2 monitoring.

METHODS: Between October 2011 and January 2013, all patients with a diagnosis of MMD were intraoperatively monitored. Cerebral oxygenation status was analyzed based on the Ptio2/PaO2 ratio. Reference thresholds of PtiO2/PaO2 had been previously defined as below 0.1 for the lower reference threshold (hypoxia) and above 0.35 for the upper reference threshold (hyperoxia).

RESULTS: Before STA-MCA bypass, all patients presented a situation of severe tissue hypoxia confirmed by a PtiO2/PaO2 ratio <0.1. After bypass, all patients showed a rapid and sustained increase in PtiO2, which reached normal values (PtiO2/PaO2 ratio between 0.1 and 0.35). One patient showed an initial PtiO2 improvement followed by a decrease due to bypass occlusion. After repeat anastomosis, the patient’s PtiO2 increased again and stabilized.

CONCLUSION: Direct anastomosis quickly improves cerebral oxygenation, immediately reducing the risk of ischemic stroke in both pediatric and adult patients. Intraoperative PtiO2 monitoring is a very reliable tool to verify the effectiveness of this revascularization procedure.

From: Rapid Resolution of Brain Ischemic Hypoxia After Cerebral Revascularization in Moyamoya Disease by Arikan et al.

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