BACKGROUND: Surgical intervention for severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) caused by extra-axial hemorrhage has declined in recent decades. The effect of this change on patient outcomes is unknown.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the change over time in surgical intervention in this population and to assess changes in patient outcomes.
METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, the Washington State Trauma Registry was queried from 1995 to 2012 for patients with extra-axial hemorrhage and head Abbreviated Injury Scale score of 3 to 5. Data were linked to the state-wide death registry to analyze long-term mortality. The primary outcome was inpatient mortality. Secondary outcomes included 6- and 12-month mortality and modified Functional Independence Measure at discharge. Multivariable analyses were completed for all outcomes.
RESULTS: A total of 22974 patients met inclusion criteria. Over the study period, surgical intervention for severe TBI declined from 36% to 7%. There was a decline in case fatality from 22% to 12%. In 2012, the relative risk of inpatient mortality was 23% lower compared with 1995 (adjusted mortality risk ratio, 0.77; 95% confidence interval, 0.63-0.94). Changes in 6- and 12-month adjusted mortality and modified Functional Independence Measure were not statistically significant.
CONCLUSION: The decline in surgical intervention for severe TBI caused by extra-axial hemorrhage in Washington State was ubiquitous across regional, demographic, and injury characteristic strata. There was concurrently a reduction in inpatient mortality in this population. Functional status and long-term mortality, however, have remained the same. Future studies are needed to better identify modifiable risk factors for improvement in functional status and long-term mortality in this population.
From: Temporal Trends in Surgical Intervention for Severe Traumatic Brain Injury Caused by Extra-axial Hemorrhage, 1995 to 2012 by Flynn-O’Brien et al.