BACKGROUND: Acute hydrocephalus is a well-known sequela of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Controversy exists about whether open microsurgical methods serve to reduce shunt dependency compared with endovascular techniques.
OBJECTIVE: To determine predictors of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus and functional outcomes after aneurysmal SAH.
METHODS: A total of 471 patients who were part of a prospective, randomized, controlled trial from 2003 to 2007 were retrospectively reviewed. All variables including demographic data, medical history, treatment, imaging, and functional outcomes were included as part of the trial. No additional variables were retrospectively collected.
RESULTS: Ultimately, 147 patients (31.2%) required a ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) in our series. Age, dissecting aneurysm type, ruptured vertebrobasilar aneurysm, Fisher grade, Hunt and Hess grade, admission intraventricular hemorrhage, admission intraparenchymal hemorrhage, blood in the fourth ventricle on admission, perioperative ventriculostomy, and hemicraniectomy were significant risk factors (P < .05) associated with shunt-dependent hydrocephalus on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, intraventricular hemorrhage and intraparenchymal hemorrhage were independent risk factors for shunt dependency (P < .05). Clipping vs coiling treatment was not statistically associated with VPS after SAH on both univariate and multivariate analyses. Patients who did not receive a VPS at discharge had higher Glasgow Outcome Scale and Barthel Index scores and were more likely to be functionally independent and to return to work 72 months after surgery (P < .05).
CONCLUSION: There is no difference in shunt dependency after SAH among patients treated by endovascular or microsurgical means. Patients in whom shunt-dependent hydrocephalus does not develop after SAH tend to have improved long-term functional outcomes.
From: Long-term Functional Outcomes and Predictors of Shunt-Dependent Hydrocephalus After Treatment of Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysms in the BRAT Trial: Revisiting the Clip vs Coil Debate by Zaidi et al.