OBJECTIVE: To describe new modifications of the procedure distraction, compression, extension, and reduction (DCER), ie, joint remodeling (JRM) and extra-articular distraction (EAD) in patients with “vertical” joints, and to quantify the improvement in joint indices, ie, sagittal inclination (SI), craniocervical tilt (CCT), and coronal inclination.
METHODS: Prospective study (May 2010 to September 2014). Joint indices measured included (normal values): SI (87.15 ± 5.65°), CCT (60.2 ± 9.2°), and coronal inclination (110.3 ± 4.23°). Surgical procedures included DCER alone (performed in SI <100°, group I) or JRM with DCER (in SI: 100-160°, group II), or EAD with DCER in severe BI with almost vertical joints (SI >160°, group III).
RESULTS: Seventy-nine patients were selected (mean, 22.5 years of age). All conventional indices improved significantly (P < .001). CCT improved in all groups (P < .01); group I (n = 32): 54 ± 8.7° (preoperative 80.71 ± 12.72°); group II (n = 40): 58 ± 7.0° (preoperative 86.5 ± 14°); group III (n = 7): 62 ± 10.0° (preoperative 104 ± 11.2°). SI improved in both group I and II, P < .01 (cannot be measured in group III). At long-term follow-up (n = 64, 29 ± 8 months, range 12-39 months), the Nurick grade improved to 1.5 ± 0.52 (preoperative: 3.4 ± 0.65; P < .001).
CONCLUSION: DCER seems to be an effective technique in reducing both BI and AAD. JRM and EAD with DCER are useful in moderate to severe BI and AAD (with SI >100°). Joint indices provide useful information for surgical strategy and planning.
From: Distraction, Compression, Extension, and Reduction Combined With Joint Remodeling and Extra-articular Distraction: Description of 2 New Modifications for Its Application in Basilar Invagination and Atlantoaxial Dislocation: Prospective Study in 79 Cases by Chandra et al.