Ahead of Print: High-Risk Factors in Symptomatic Patients Undergoing Carotid Artery Stenting With Distal Protection

BACKGROUND: Demographics and vascular anatomy may play an important role in predicting periprocedural complications in symptomatic patients undergoing carotid artery stenting (CAS).

OBJECTIVE: To predict factors associated with increased risk of complications in symptomatic patients undergoing CAS and o devise a CAS scoring system that predicts such complications in this patient population.

METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted that included patients who underwent CAS for symptomatic carotid stenosis during a 3-year period. Demographics and anatomic characteristics were subsequently correlated with 30-day outcome measures.

RESULTS: A total of 221 patients were included in the study. The cumulative rate of periprocedural complications was 7.2%, including stroke (3.2%), myocardial infarction (3.2%), and death (1.4%). Renal disease increased the risk of all complications. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score >=10 at presentation, difficult femoral access, and diseased calcified aortic arch increased the risk of stroke and all complications. Type III aortic arch correlated with increased risk of stroke. Pseudo-occlusion and concentric calcification of the carotid artery increased the risk of myocardial infarction, death, and all complications. Carotid tortuosity and anatomy hostile to the deployment of distal protection devices increased the risk of stroke, myocardial infarction, death, and all complications.

CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that CAS should be avoided in patients with multiple anatomic risk factors. High presenting National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score and renal disease also increase the complication risk. The CAS scoring system devised here is simple, reproducible, and clinically valuable in predicting complications risk in symptomatic patients undergoing CAS.

From: High-Risk Factors in Symptomatic Patients Undergoing Carotid Artery Stenting With Distal Protection: Buffalo Risk Assessment Scale (BRASS) by Fanous et al.

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