BACKGROUND: Endovascular Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) placement for intracranial aneurysms is performed under general anesthesia at most centers because of perceived improved image quality and patient safety.
OBJECTIVE: To report the feasibility, safety, and outcomes associated with the use of the PED for intracranial aneurysms performed in awake patients after the administration of conscious sedation (CS) and a local anesthetic.
METHODS: Between March 2012 and September 2014, 130 patients with 139 intracranial aneurysms (8 ruptured) were treated with the PED under CS at our institution. Procedure details and time (including duration, radiation exposure, and fluoroscopy) and procedure-related complications were retrospectively reviewed.
RESULTS: A total of 155 PED deployment procedures were performed under CS. Treatment was successfully completed in all cases. Anesthesia was converted from CS to general anesthesia during 5 procedures. Mean interval from patient entry at the endovascular suite to procedure initiation was 18 minutes (range, 5 minutes-1 hour 10 minutes). Mean procedure length was 1 hour 25 minutes (range, 30 minutes-3 hours 51 minutes). Mean ± SD values for fluoroscopy time and radiation exposure were 36.17 ± 18.4 minutes and 1367 ± 897 mGy, respectively. The mean amount of contrast material administered was 211.37 ± 83.5 mL. Permanent neurological complications were seen in 4 patients (3%).
CONCLUSION: In our experience, CS for PED placement for intracranial aneurysm treatment is feasible and safe. Procedure and fluoroscopy times and amount of radiation exposure are similar to or less than described in reports of PED placement under general anesthesia. CS allows direct neurological evaluation and earlier detection of and response to intraprocedural complications.
From: Feasibility, Safety, and Periprocedural Complications of Pipeline Embolization for Intracranial Aneurysm Treatment Under Conscious Sedation: University at Buffalo Neurosurgery Experience by Rangel-Castilla et al.