Given the heterogeneity of brain metastasis growth and response to therapeutic interventions, any molecular insights into their growth would be clinically valuable. Accordingly, predicting the clinical course of patients with metastatic tumors has been the topic of many research studies. The overexpression of metastasis-inducing proteins (MIPs) in tumor cells has been examined as a potential indicator of the disease course and may elucidate metastatic behavior and response to different treatment modalities.1-3
Zakaria et al4 recently examined well-established MIPs and performed a retrospective and prospective study that could establish clinical relevance. In their retrospective review, they obtained 138 tissue samples of metastatic brain lesions and performed an immunohistochemical analysis for S100P, S100A4, osteopontin, anterior gradient 2, and Fanconi anemia protein complementation D2, which is a vital component of dsDNA repair mechanisms that consequently permits the overexpression of MIPs. Relevant clinical data were extracted from medical records, which included site of primary cancer, overall survival, progression-free survival, and other known clinical characteristics that have shown to be a predictor of morbidity and mortality in patients with brain metastasis (location of metastasis, number of metastases, synchronous presentation, controlled primary, extracranial metastases, performance status).
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